Ferdinand and his advisors were concerned the brutality of the Würzburg and Bamberg trials would discredit the Counter-Reformation, and active persecution largely ended by 1630. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany.  Since Frederick demanded full restitution of his lands and titles, which was incompatible with the Treaty of Munich, hopes of reaching a negotiated peace quickly evaporated. A Spanish offensive in 1636 reached Corbie in Northern France; although it caused panic in Paris, lack of supplies forced them to retreat, and it was not repeated. "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a … The high mortality rate compared to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in Britain may partly be due to the reliance of all sides on foreign mercenaries, often unpaid and required to live off the land.  The Dutch were also given a monopoly over trade conducted through the Scheldt estuary, confirming the commercial ascendancy of Amsterdam; Antwerp, capital of the Spanish Netherlands and previously the most important port in Northern Europe, would not recover until the late 19th century. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.  The Swedes captured Leipzig in December, giving them a significant new base in Germany, and although they failed to take Freiberg in February 1643, the Saxon army was reduced to a few garrisons. To recover his costs, Maximilian was allowed to annex Donauwörth, which under the principle of cuius regio, eius religio changed a formerly Lutheran town into a Catholic one. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. Poland, having been drawn in as a Baltic power coveted by Sweden, pushed its own ambitions by attacking Russia and establishing a dictatorship in Moscow under Władysław, Poland’s future king. Though the war took place mainly within modern … At Prague in 1635, Ferdinand made peace with his German opponents by accepting their autonomy. He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch. In addition, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Church since the 1552 Peace of Passau. They included separation of the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs, expansion of the French frontier into the Empire, and an end to Spanish military supremacy in Northern Europe. This ended with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia.. In 1625 King Christian IV of Denmark saw an opportunity to gain valuable territory in Germany to balance his earlier loss of Baltic provinces to Sweden. The conflict lasted, unceasing, for 30 years, making it the longest continuous war in modern history. The strategic importance of the Duchy of Mantua meant when the direct male line became extinct in December 1627, both powers became involved in the 1628 to 1631 War of the Mantuan Succession. No one expected it to last three decades. Soldiers devastated one area before moving on, leaving large tracts of land empty of people and changing the eco-system.  Seeking to release French troops and prevent further Swedish gains by neutralising Bavaria, Mazarin negotiated the Truce of Ulm, signed on 14 March 1647 by Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden. This resulted in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with France and Sweden respectively. , Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them.  He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. The income from their imperial possessions remained in Germany and did not benefit the kingdom of Sweden; although they retained Swedish Pomerania until 1815, much of it was ceded to Prussia in 1679 and 1720. The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire.…, The Bohemian problem was resolved swiftly. In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. What were long-term causes of the 30 years war? In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. Also, can you list some basic cause and effects of the war? , Another was Frederick V, Elector Palatine, who succeeded his father in 1610, and in 1613 married Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I of England. The range of confessions in Germany, 1650, as a result of the Thirty Years' War.  Mainz and Trier also witnessed the mass killing of suspected witches, as did Cologne, where Ferdinand of Bavaria presided over a particularly infamous series of witchcraft trials, including that of Katharina Henot, who was executed in 1627.  Some historians who see the war as primarily a European conflict argue Jülich marks its beginning, with Spain and Austria backing the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. Over a four-year period, the parties (Holy Roman Emperor, France and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. Take advantage of our Presidents' Day bonus! The Thirty Years' War (German: Dreißigjähriger Krieg, pronounced [ˈdʁaɪ̯sɪçˌjɛːʁɪɡɐ kʁiːk] (listen)) was a conflict fought in modern Germany and Central Europe from 1618 to 1648. Spain had lost not only the Netherlands but its dominant position in western Europe. “This is a fight between God and the Devil,” the King … Here, in the heartland of Europe, three denominations vied for dominance: Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism. As the Twelve Years’ Truce approached its end, it became obvious that the Spanish empire needed a new strategy. , Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Thirty-Years-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Thirty Years War, Thirty Years’ War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Thirty Years’ War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Europe, history of: The Thirty Years’ War, Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, count-duke de Olivares, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". Charles I of England allowed Christian to recruit up to 9,000 Scottish mercenaries, but they took time to arrive, and while able to slow Wallenstein's advance, were insufficient to stop him. , Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. More common were disputes such as the 1606 'Battle of the Flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. One may describe a feeling of sadness as being "blue" and cowardice as being "yellow," but did American revolutionaries refer to British soldiers as "redcoats?"  Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. This threatened both Lutherans and Calvinists, paralysed the Diet, and removed the perception of Imperial neutrality. This allowed Bavaria, Brandenburg-Prussia, Saxony and others to pursue their own policies, while Sweden gained a permanent foothold in the Empire.  Many Protestants supported Ferdinand because they objected to deposing the legally elected king of Bohemia, and now opposed Frederick's removal on the same grounds. , Northern Italy had been contested by France and the Habsburgs for centuries, since it was vital for control of South-West France, an area with a long history of opposition to the central authorities.  Outnumbered by a Franco-Swedish army under Wrangel and Turenne, they were defeated at Zusmarshausen in May 1648, while von Holzappel was killed. Though it was primarily centered in Germany, several other countries became involved in the conflict, including France, Spain, and Sweden. deteriorating military position. , French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes.  The financial impact is less clear; while the war caused short-term economic dislocation, overall it accelerated existing changes in trading patterns.  Payments amounted to 400,000 Reichstaler, or one million livres per year, plus an additional 120,000 Reichstalers for 1630. The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe.  Cutting the Spanish Road had forced Madrid to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea and in October 1639 a large Spanish convoy was destroyed at the Battle of the Downs. In late August, Gustavus incurred heavy losses in an unsuccessful assault on the town, arguably the greatest blunder in his German campaign. , The breakdown of social order caused by the war was often more significant and longer lasting than the immediate damage. These concerns were exacerbated when a series of legal disputes over property were all decided in favour of the Catholic Church. The political disintegration of the Polish commonwealth led to the 1655 to 1660 Second Northern War with Sweden, which also involved Denmark, Russia and Brandenburg, while two Swedish attempts to impose its control on the port of Bremen failed in 1654 and 1666. The French candidate, Charles I Gonzaga, was confirmed as Duke of Mantua; although Richelieu's representative, Cardinal Mazarin, agreed to evacuate Pinerolo, it was later secretly returned under an agreement with Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. At this point, Olivares publicised secret discussions initiated by Mazarin in early 1646, in which he offered to exchange Catalonia for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by what they viewed as betrayal and concerned by French ambitions in Flanders, the Dutch agreed a truce with Spain in January 1647. Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies, and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. , While differences over religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe in which it can be said to be a primary driver; later conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards revolt in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War.  Banér defeated the Saxons at Chemnitz in April 1639, then entered Bohemia in May. The Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, and Mansfeld's army dissolved following his death in November. The combination destabilised large parts of the Empire. By 1618, Europe was drifting into the generalized crisis that became the Thirty Years’ War. , Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. They included Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein; in 1625 he intervened in Northern Germany until forced to withdraw in 1629. Possession of these fortresses gave France effective control of Piedmont, protected the Alpine passes into Southern France, and allowed them to threaten Milan at will. In July 1620, the Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony agreed to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatia, and a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia.  These figures can be misleading, since Franz calculated the absolute decline in pre and post-war populations, or 'total demographic loss'. , Between 1629 and 1631, plague exacerbated by troop movements killed 60,000 in Milan and 46,000 in Venice, with proportionate losses elsewhere. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. , Frederick IV now formed the Protestant Union, largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. Frederick's son Charles Louis regained the Lower Palatinate and became the eighth Imperial elector, although Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and its electoral vote. Ferdinand pulled together an Imperial army under Gallas to attack the Swedes from the rear, which proved a disastrous decision. This thesis explores the role of England and the English during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), and provides the first major study of the between 50,000 and 60,000 Englishmen who fought for the ‘Protestant cause’ within the armies of countries such as … Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. In return, they dissolved the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues.  In May, a Bavarian force under von Mercy destroyed a French detachment at Herbsthausen, before he was defeated and killed at Second Nördlingen in August. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. , Elsewhere, persecution followed Imperial military success, expanding into Baden and the Palatinate following their reconquest by Tilly, then into the Rhineland.  Combined with the diversion of Imperial resources caused by Swedish intervention in 1630, this led to the Treaty of Cherasco in June 1631. After the war ended Onoda spent 29 years hiding out in the Philippines until his former commander travelled from … For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance.  Although regular outbreaks of disease were common for decades prior to 1618, the conflict greatly accelerated their spread. The Thirty Years' War was one of the bloodiest events in European history — deadlier than the Black Death and World War II, ... but most of the battles were fought … This view is widely accepted by modern historians, although debate continues over the extent to which it was a European rather than German conflict, and the accuracy of the title 'Thirty Years'. Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, and the bishoprics of Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Kammin, and Minden. Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. Each member was represented in the Imperial Diet; prior to 1663, this assembled on an irregular basis, and was primarily a forum for discussion, rather than legislation. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed.  Poor harvests throughout the 1630s and repeated plundering of the same areas led to widespread famine; contemporaries record people eating grass, or too weak to accept alms, while instances of cannibalism were common. The principal battlefield for all these intermittent conflicts was the towns and principalities of Germany, which suffered severely. Anti-Imperial alliance: prior to 1635 [a]. The Swedish force only entered the Thirty Year’s War 12 years after it began to side with the Protestants;yet history reveals that Sweden was the most successful of all countries involved and had killed about half of the Roman Empire’s national army, that is about 100 000 men.  Gabriel Bethlen, Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, invaded Hungary with Ottoman support, although the Habsburgs persuaded them to avoid direct involvement, helped by the outbreak of hostilities with Poland in 1620, followed by the 1623 to 1639 war with Persia. This is generally seen as the point when the conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war. This made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader; one lesson learned from Wallenstein and the Swedish invasion was the need for their own permanent armies, and Germany as a whole became a far more militarised society. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). While flight saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. It began with the resistance of Protestant nobles in Bohemia against the Hapsburgs, the family which headed the Holy Roman Empire. , The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. , The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. Fighting did not end immediately, since demobilising over 200,000 soldiers was a complex business, and the last Swedish garrison did not leave Germany until 1654. , Despite the death of Bernhard, over the next two years the Franco-Swedish alliance won a series of battles in Germany, including Wolfenbüttel in June 1641 and Kempen in January 1642. Hoping to create a wider coalition against Ferdinand, the Dutch invited France, Sweden, Savoy, and the Republic of Venice to join, but it was overtaken by events. Thirty Years’ War, (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. , In 1580, Philip II of Spain became ruler of the Portuguese Empire, and the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War began as an offshoot of the Dutch fight for independence from Spain. While the Thirty Years War ranks as one of the worst of these events, precise numbers are disputed; 19th century nationalists often increased them to illustrate the dangers of a divided Germany. , The war consisted of two main phases, the first being a primarily internal conflict between Emperor Ferdinand II and his opponents within the Holy Roman Empire, with external powers playing a supportive role. It …  Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion. This was due to the influx of soldiers from foreign countries, the shifting locations of battle fronts, as well as the displacement of rural populations into already crowded cities.  Sweden received an indemnity of five million thalers, the Imperial territories of Swedish Pomerania, and Prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; this gave them a seat in the Imperial Diet.  The death toll may have improved living standards for the survivors; one study shows wages in Germany increased by 40% in real terms between 1603 and 1652. Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not guaranteed; one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his candidacy. Christian retained his German possessions of Schleswig and Holstein, in return for relinquishing Bremen and Verden, and abandoning support for the German Protestants. , The Danish campaign plan involved three armies; the main force under Christian IV was to advance down the Weser, while Mansfeld attacked Wallenstein in Magdeburg and Christian of Brunswick linked up with the Calvinist Maurice of Hesse-Kassel.  Nearly 50% of these losses appear to have been incurred during the first period of Swedish intervention from 1630 to 1635. Dr Bernd Warlich has edited four diaries of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). , Outside powers became involved in an internal German dispute due to the imminent expiry of the 1609 Twelve Years' Truce, which suspended the war between Spain and the Dutch. While this gave them seats in the Imperial Diet, it also brought them conflict with both Brandenburg-Prussia and Saxony, who were competitors in Pomerania. The crisis had a constitutional and political as well as a religious dimension. By 1623, Spanish-Imperial forces had defeated Frederick, who was stripped of his possessions and exiled. Ferdinand won after a five-year struggle. He began negotiations with Wallenstein, who despite his recent victories was concerned by the prospect of Swedish intervention, and thus anxious to make peace. Hiroo Onoda (Japanese: 小野田 寛郎, Hepburn: Onoda Hiroo, 19 March 1922 – 16 January 2014) was an Imperial Japanese Army intelligence officer who fought in World War II and was a Japanese holdout who did not surrender at the war's end in August 1945. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. We are often told that ‘total war’ is a sad product of the modern, industrial age. Even after union, the Portuguese dominated the Atlantic trade in Triangular trade, exporting slaves from West Africa and Angola to work sugar plantations in Brazil. This was the Holy Roman Emperor during the 30 Years War. The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was a massive and deadly conflict that eventually involved most of Europe. Leaving Wrangel to finish the war in Denmark, in May 1644 Torstenson marched into the Empire; Gallas was unable to stop him, while the Danes sued for peace after their defeat at Fehmarn in October 1644. , Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. In the October 1619 Treaty of Munich, Ferdinand agreed to transfer the Palatinate's electoral vote to Bavaria and allow him to annex the Upper Palatinate. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. One of the better ways to illustrate this is to point to the … Doing so turned the conflict into a contest between Imperial authority and "German liberties", while Catholics saw an opportunity to regain lands lost since 1555. Thirty Years War , THE.—The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though preeminently a German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe, not only because nearly all the countries of Western Europe took part in it, but also on account of its connection with the other great European wars of the same era and on account of its final results.  Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. The 30 Years’ War was a global war. , After Tilly's death, Ferdinand turned once again to Wallenstein; knowing Gustavus was over extended, he marched into Franconia and established himself at Fürth, threatening the Swedish supply chain. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. Up to the Peace of Prague, France had played a minimal part in the Thirty Years War.What participation France had committed herself to involved just diplomatic and political measures. This was very much Rudolf II's (ruled 15…  However, Spanish and Dutch involvement in the campaign was a significant step in internationalising the war, while Frederick's removal meant other Protestant princes began discussing armed resistance to preserve their own rights and territories. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. , The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'.  In early 1626, Cardinal Richelieu, main architect of the alliance, faced a new Huguenot rebellion at home and in the March Treaty of Monzón, France withdrew from Northern Italy, re-opening the Spanish Road. During the Thirty Years’ War, many of the contending armies were mercenaries, many of whom could not collect their pay. Christian IV of Denmark was also Duke of Holstein, and it was in this capacity he joined the war in 1625. This meant each of the 224 member states was either Lutheran, the most usual form of Protestantism, or Catholic, based on the choice made by their ruler. A combined Imperial-Catholic League army funded by Maximilian and led by Count Tilly pacified Upper and Lower Austria before invading Bohemia, where they defeated Christian of Anhalt at the White Mountain in November 1620. Two Roman Catholic armies, the emperor’s and the League’s, converged on the kingdom, routing Frederick at the White Mountain in November 1620 and replacing the regime of the estates in Bohemia…, In 1620, following the defeat of Frederick V (the elector palatine, or prince, from the Rhineland who had accepted the crown of Bohemia when it was offered to him in 1618) and the Bohemians, Spanish troops from the Netherlands entered the “Winter…. His successor Cardinal Mazarin continued the same general policy, while French gains in Alsace allowed him to re-focus on the war against Spain in the Netherlands. In fact, almost all of the powerful countries in Europe were involved in the war.  However, the conflict has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. It devastated most of Europe especially Germany and ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Previously, many had overlapping, sometimes conflicting political and religious allegiances; they were now understood to be subject first and foremost to the laws and edicts of their respective state authority, not to the claims of any other entity, be it religious or secular. Corrections? Ferdinand II. France was now the chief Western power. These trials lasted five years and claimed over one thousand lives, including long-time Bürgermeister, or Mayor, Johannes Junius, and Dorothea Flock, second wife of Georg Heinrich Flock, whose first wife had also been executed for witchcraft in May 1628. The Empire remained a formidable power but could no longer subsidise Ferdinand, impacting his ability to continue the war. , Before Augsburg, unity of religion compensated for lack of strong central authority; once removed, it presented opportunities for those who sought to further weaken it. The armies of both sides plundered as they marched, leaving cities, towns, villages, and farms ravaged. , In May 1628, his deputy von Arnim besieged Stralsund, the only port with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. Along with the number of civilian casualties, the Thirty Years’ War was also one of the longest and most … Only in the relatively minor Mantuan episode did France have any military involvement but this was short-lived and did not involve the major European powers. 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A Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years war this war plundered as they marched, cities! Also, can you list some basic cause and effects of the population died defeated... Army dissolved following his death in November the time he died in 1631, over people... Occupied Halberstadt in who fought in the 30 years war 1625 conflict that eventually involved most of Europe, three denominations vied for:! City Council Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Cologne City Council Barcelona, ending the Revolt May Condé! Full treatment, see Europe, history of: the Thirty Years ’ war follows war 1618 - 1648,!
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