Trends Ecol. doi: 10.1093/jhered/90.4.502, Prentis, P. J., Sigg, D. P., Raghu, S., Dhileepan, K., Pavasovic, A., Lowe, A. J. According to the cpDNA analysis, S. alterniflora populations in Japan had a single haplotype (haplotype C4) that is the most dominant genotype around the Florida Peninsula, the region of its origin, and is also widely found in the introduced populations in the East Asia. Alaska Spartina Prevention, Detection and Response Plan (Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service Alaska Region). The datasets generated for this study can be found in the DNA Data Bank of JAPAN (DDJB), accession number: LC565815. Smooth cordgrass is a perennial grass that is native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America but is invasive along the Pacific Coast. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press). 94 (3), 197–204. (2004). (2015). However, it remains unclear how the invasion age and expansion direction of S. alterniflora impact the soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Geographic structure, genetic diversity and source tracking of Spartina alterniflora. The threat of invasive alien species to biological diversity: setting a future course. Mol. Eng. (2007). The Invasive Spartina Project is a coordinated regional effort among local, state and federal organizations dedicated to preserving California's extraordinary coastal biological resources through the elimination of introduced species of Spartina (cordgrass). Furthermore, given that ports that trade with China are all over Japan, the strengthening of shared information networks on introduced species between each region/port would lead to minimize their biological invasion risks. 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al., 2000) was used for this analysis. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294x.2007.03538.x, Earl, D. A., von Holdt, B. M. (2012). (2016). Genotypic diversity enhances invasive ability of Spartina alterniflora. Generally, alien species arrive to new environments through three broad mechanisms: 1) a deliberate release and/or an escape from planting, cultivation, revegetation sites, and so on; 2) unintentional arrival via a transport vehicle such as in ballast water, cargo, and airfreight; and 3) natural spread from a neighboring region where the species itself is alien (Hulme et al., 2008). (cordgrass) (Bortolus et al., 2019) greatly alter brackish and estuarine salt marsh environments via changes in the sediment properties of the tidal flats with growth, resulting in its subsequent further population expansion (e.g., Howes and Teal, 1994; Neira et al., 2005). doi: 10.1007/BF00037152. Natl. doi: 10.1614/IPSM-D-15-00020.1, Lee, C. E. (2002). U. S. A. (2012). The temperature conditions of Blum et al. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0193 Special Issue: 入侵生态学专辑 • Orginal Article • Previous Articles Next Articles Plant nutrient dynamics and stoichiometric homeostasis of invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native Cyperus malaccensis var. However, the degree of genetic diversity and differentiation of introduced populations obviously varies for each invasion event (e.g., Amsellem et al., 2000; McCauley et al., 2003; Provan et al., 2005). Ser. In this study, we predicted the low frequency of S. alterniflora invasion. 101 (38), 13804–13807. Fifty years of invasion ecology: The legacy of Charles Elton (New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2007.00559.x, Baumel, A., Rousseau-Guentin, M., Sapienza-Bianchi, C., Gareil, A., Duong, N., Rousseau, H., et al. Spartina versicolor Fabre: Another case of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction? Proc. On the other hand, populations of this species in the San Francisco Bay, California, and China, which were introduced intentionally, had a relatively high genetic diversity (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). Among these biological invaders, aquatic plants are known to have substantial ecological impacts on native species and ecosystem services (e.g., Hayasaka et al., 2018), as well as subsequent huge economic losses. Lett. Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California – Davis. Table 1 Information on the genetic diversity of invasive Spartina alterniflora based on the microsatellite loci in Japan. 35 (4), 444.452. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.05.020, Wang, X. Y., Shen, D. W., Jiao, J., Xu, N. N., Yu, S., Zhou, X. F., et al. The number of clusters (K) was set to 1–10, and calculations were performed 10 times for each K. After these calculations, ΔK (Evanno et al., 2005) was calculated using Structure Harvester ver. (2019). We examined trait differences and evolution across geographic clines among continents of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora within its invasive and native ranges. Our data suggest that invasive Spartina can create an ecological trap for the native insect Laelia. Distrib. (2.5 to 20 cm) wide and are often purplish at the base. invading the Pacific coast of the U.S. (Castillo et al., 2018). in Japan. It is suggested that although these individuals have actually grown via seed propagation (i.e., sexual reproduction), they may be considered as clones with exactly the same genotype due to the extreme homozygosity. USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database. Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. 14 (7), 702–708. Software STRUCTURE ver. Taxonomy: Scientific and Common Names for This Species, Native Spartina Species Resemble Smooth Cordgrass, Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS, United States Land-Grant University System, Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas. Murakami, T. (2018). Gard. CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. Rep. 10, 2116. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58879-7, Hoos, P. M., Miller, A. W., Ruiz, G. M., Vrijenhoek, R. C., Geller, J. Then, the genetic variance of S. alterniflora was compared between populations in the region of origin (the eastern U.S.) and those in several introduced regions (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and some East Asian countries). 4 (2), 359–361. Such low genetic diversities associated with a founder effect were also found in other Spartina species such as S. versicolor Fabre introduced in Europe (Baumel et al., 2016) and S. densiflora Brongn. 47 (3), 183–191. (B) The assignment of each individual into the clusters using STRUCTURE analysis. How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS – Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. Total plant height can be up to 7 feet tall. Pollen limitation causes an allee effect in a wind-pollinated invasive grass (Spartina alterniflora). Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) as an invasive halophyte in Pacific Northwest Estuaries. Reconstructing a century of Spartina alterniflora invasion with historical records and contemporary remote sensing. YM, TH, AN, and DH collected samples. What are invasive species, and why should we be concerned about them? To verify whether a genetic bottleneck had been formed in each local population in Japan, BOTTLENECK analysis (Piry et al., 1999) was conducted using Wilcoxon’s heterozygosity excess test (Luikart et al., 1998a) and the mode shift test (Luikart et al., 1998b). Impacts of invasive Iris pseudacorus L. (yellow flag) establishing in an abandoned urban pond on native semi-wetland vegetation. doi: 10.1093/molbev/mst197, Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G., Gibson, T. J. Mol. County Extension Offices – Find your county Extension office on this map provided by USDA. 14 (1), 189–194. (2010). Biol. The findings revealed that when compared the amount of trade between the Yatsushiro Port (southern Kumamoto), which includes the Oono River and the U.S. ($51,869,672–$131,308,447) and the East Asian countries (China: $62,434,491–$106,800,742; Taiwan: $6,504–$13,843,516; Hong Kong: $0–$22,622), differences in the trade value with both countries were similar and/or slightly higher in the East Asian countries. Am. In a laboratory incubation experiment lasting for 153 days, we used two types of soil which were collected from invasive S. alterniflora and native Phragmites australis marshlands, and traced the transformation of 13 C from leaf and root litter of invasive Spartina alterniflora into CO 2, soil-dissolved organic C (DOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and soil organic C (SOC). Sci. There are some studies that compared the genetic variation of S. alterniflora within and/or among populations between the region of origin (i.e. 6.5 (Peakall and Smouse, 2012). 38 (2), 61–66. Oecologia 144 (1), 1–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02384.x, Pyšek, P., Richardson, D. M. (2010). For example, Bossdorf et al. (2016). The positive and negative effects of exotic Spartina alterniflora in China. Spartina alterniflora is native to the eastern coast of North America. The proportions for Axis 1 and Axis 2 were 41.2% and 23.3%, respectively. Smooth cordgrass came to Washington in the late 1800s, either in shipments of oysters from the East Coast or as packing material in ships’ cargo. (A) The estimation of the optimum number of clusters based on ΔK. Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductions. Ecology 87 (2), 419–432. Current status and environmental effects of Spartina spp. doi: 10.1007/s13157-015-0643-5. (e.g., North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida) for eco-engineering purposes (i.e., reclamation of tideland) (Xu and Zhou, 1985; Wan et al., 2009). All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. (2007) estimated that S. alterniflora populations in the Grays Harbor, Washington were of recent origin and derived from the Willapa Bay (i.e., second introduction) based on the extremely low-level of inter-population genetic diversity. doi: 10.2307/3298527. 90 (1), 67–76. Invasive cordgrass modifies wetland trophic function. Mol. Supporting Spartina: interdisciplinary perspective shows Spartina as a distinct solid genus. 0.6.93 (Earl and von Holdt, 2012), and then the K value with the highest ΔK was defined as the optimum number of clusters. Ecol. To achieve control and/or eradication of invasive S. alterniflora and prevent its future invasion successfully, knowledge about the current status of S. alterniflora in Japan through a population genetic approach is thought indispensable. Regarding the genetic differences among the individuals, the pairwise co-dominant genotypic distances in each Japanese population were calculated using GenAlEx ver. The genotype diversity (g) was extremely high at 0.93 ± 0.12 in samples from the Atlantic coast of the U.S. (native range), and similar tendencies were also found in other regions where S. alterniflora invaded (Table 1). The sequences of trnT–trnF region from Japanese populations revealed that all S. alterniflora populations in Japan had a single haplotype (accession number: LC565815): the haplotype C4 (accession number: KJ499448, Guo et al., 2015; MG201950, Qiao et al., 2019) (Figure 2, Table 1). The hierarchical spatial distribution of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms across the introduced range of Silene vulgaris. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Invasive species, environmental change and management, and health. tomentosoides. (New York, NY: Wiley & Sons), 255–289. smooth cordgrass – Images at invasive.org, Invasive Spartina Project: Field Guide – California Coastal Conservancy, Identifying Spartina Grass: Video – Reflections on the Water. Frankham, R., Briscoe, D. A., Ballou, J. D. (2002). Reimagining South American coasts: unveiling the hidden invasion history of an iconic ecological engineer. Significant alteration of both marsh composition and structure due to the establishment of invasive Spartina, and especially Spartina alterniflora and its hybrids, can be observed around the San Francisco Estuary. Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. A few greenhouse studies have compared the plant traits of native and invasive populations of S. alterniflora and found populations of S. alterniflora from native habitats have a lower biomass, photosynthetic rate and root biomass ratio than invasive populations ( Qing et … Glob. Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Fujian, 361102 China. Spartina invasion in China: implications for invasive species management and future research. This value indicates the rate of genetic loci with polymorphisms compared to all the genetic loci for each local population. Genet. Goudet, J. Invasive Spartina alterniflora and tidal flat loss endanger important shorebird habitat in coastal mainland China. The PCR amplification were carried out in a total volume of 20 μl, consisting of approximately 10 to 50 ng/μl template DNA (4.0 μl), 10× Buffer (2.0 μl), 2 mM dNTP mixture (2.0 μl), 0.2 μl of each 100 pM primer pair, and 2.5 U/μl of Blend Taq (0.5 μl) (TOYOBO, Osaka, Japan). The value of g indicates the rate of the individuals with duplicate clones removed in each local population. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009743. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., Kumar, S. (2013). We sampled vegetative and reproductive traits in the field at 20 sites over 20° latitude in China (invasive range) and 28 sites over 17° in the US (native range). Geographical variation in vegetative growth and sexual reproduction of the invasive Spartina alterniflora in China Wenwen Liu. YM and DH drafted the paper with the input of NN. Comparison of microsatellite data among S. alterniflora local populations in Japan for estimating the route through which S. alterniflora invaded Japan revealed that genotypes of the populations were clearly different in each river (Figures 3 and 4). Here, the distribution and structure of the genetic variation of S. alterniflora in Japan were examined using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and microsatellite genotyping analyses for clarifying its invasion route and process. Among these invasive mechanisms, the possibility of S. alterniflora invasion in Japan via intentional introductions is almost impossible, since Japan has no such imports for the reclamation of tidal flats. PCR products were purified using NucleoSpin Extract II (Macherey–Nagel, Düren, Germany) and then were used as a template for the cycle sequencing reaction. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation between native and introduced plant populations. All names of the haplotypes obtained in this study were assigned according to the method of Blum et al. Synonym(s): Atlantic cordgrass, saltmarsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora – USDA PLANTS Profile, smooth cordgrass – The reported distribution of this invasive species across the United States (Source: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States), Up-to-the-minute distribution maps and why they are important. Spartina alterniflora is simply an invasive perennial rhizomatous deep‐rooted salt marsh grass, which plays an essential role in ecological function in its native ecosystems (Xiao et al., 2010). Search for more papers by this author . In Kumamoto Prefecture, 20 and 19 S. alterniflora samples were randomly collected from multiple colonies in the Tsuboi River (N 32° 46′, E 130° 37′) facing the Ariake Sea (northern Kumamoto) and the Oono River (N32° 37′, E 130° 39′) facing the Yatsushiro Sea (southern Kumamoto), respectively. doi: 10.1002/ecy.2863, Bossdorf, O., Auge, H., Lafuma, L., Rogers, W. E., Siemann, E., Prati, D. (2005). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Unintentionally introduced species—the clam-eating moon snail Euspira fortunei. Therefore, ecological knowledge that may lead to urgent control and/or eradication of invasive aquatic plants are imperative to conserve a biological diversity (Koncki and Aronson, 2015). The forward primer was fluorescently labeled with 5′-FAM, TAMRA, and 5′-JOE. Aus den genannten Arten ist zunächst die unfruchtbare (sterile) Hybride Spartina × townsendii (2n = 61) entstanden, die wiederum durch Chromosomenverdopplung (Autopolyploidisierun… The significant excessive homozygosity on Japanese S. alterniflora populations was observed in the infinite allele mutation model (IAM), the stepwise mutation model (SMM), and the two-phased model of mutation (TPM) (P<0.05). Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the abundance and community of meiofauna in a subtropical wetland. Ecol. Invasion risk in a warmer world: modeling range expansion and habitat preferences of three nonnative aquatic invasive plants. Flowering occurs in July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers develop. PloS One 5 (3), e9743. Figure 2 Frequency and distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes in the region of origin (the eastern Unites States) and in the regions where Spartina alterniflora had been introduced intentionally and/or unintentionally (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and the East Asian countries). doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61831-8, Hayasaka, D., Nakagawa, M., Maebara, Y., Kurazono, T., Hashimoto, K. (2020). Annu. in Japanese with English Abstract. Sci. Spartina species are aquatic grasses that grow on the mudflats and marshes of Puget Sound and coastal estuaries. 90 (4), 502–503. J. Integr. doi: 10.2331/suisan.73.1129 (in Japanese, Peakall, R., Smouse, P. E. (2012). (20 to 50 cm) long and 1 to 8 in. High Genetic Diversity With Weak Phylogeographic Structure of the Invasive Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in China. After 1979, seeds and individuals of S. alterniflora were intentionally introduced into China from multiple areas of the Atlantic coast of the U.S. Front. Mol. 14 (8), 2611–2620. The genotypes of S. alterniflora populations in Japan were identified using 11 different microsatellite markers (Supplementary Table 2). In other words, only a few individuals of S. alterniflora might have successfully invaded Japan. 30 (12), 2725–2729. For example, the most likely invasion pathways of S. alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington, on the Pacific coast of the U.S. was the transport and translocation of oysters for cultivation via interstate railroad after the 1890s (Civille et al., 2005). Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. Mol. In addition, the formation of a bottleneck (i.e., shifted mode) was expected by the mode shift test in S. alterniflora population in Japan. A., West, C. J. (2016). Seed germination characteristics of invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel in Japan: implications for its effective management. Thus, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown (the United States, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong) (Blum et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016) and the ports nearest to each studied river in Japan (i.e., Kumamoto Port, Yatsushiro Port, and Mikawa Port) using historical trade data from the 2003 to 2013 in the Global Trade Atlas (https://www.gtis.com/gta/). 35 (4), 521–528. Genetic variation of Spartina alterniflora intentionally introduced to China. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-033009-095548, Pyšek, P., Jarošik, V., Hulme, P. E., Pergl, J., Hejda, M., Schaffner, U., et al. B., et al. Divers. On the other hand, low g values were found in samples from the Shirakawa River (g = 0.33) and Guangdong province in China (g = 0.32), where almost all analyzed samples had the same genotype. 100 of the world"s worst invasive alien species (Auckland, NZ: IUCN-ISSG). Smooth cordgrass is a perennial grass that is native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America but is invasive along the Pacific Coast. doi: 10.1890/04-1752, Lin, H.-J., Hsu, C.-B., Liao, S.-H., Chen, C.-P., Hsieh, H. L. (2015). 25 (1), 95–109. We concluded that invasive S. alterniflora might have independently invaded Japan at different times through an East Asia route, particularly via China (i.e., secondary introduction). Mol. Therefore, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown naturally (the United States, the East Asian countries) and Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures). Plant Sci. Despite this, it took approximately 6 years from its first detection to the start at the eradication project. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.06.007, Keywords: biological invasion, chloroplast DNA, founder effect, genetic structure, microsatellite, secondary introduction, smooth cordgrass, trade history, Citation: Maebara Y, Tamaoki M, Iguchi Y, Nakahama N, Hanai T, Nishino A and Hayasaka D (2020) Genetic Diversity of Invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Available at: https://www.env.go.jp/nature/intro/2outline/files/siteisyu_list_e.pdf (Accessed April 16, 2020). Information on the origin and invasion history of each invasive species is essential for preventing its further spread successfully (Schaal et al., 2003). On the other hand, molecular genetic data including population genetic structure and diversity can provide a great deal of information, such as the origin of the targeted species and the route of its propagation, as well as the process of the range expansion, which indirectly contributes to the elucidation of its invasion history (Lowe et al., 2004; Prentis et al., 2009; Hoos et al., 2010; Lombaert et al., 2010). Biodivers. Hubbard has been designated among the 100 worst’s most damaging invasive species in the world (Lowe et al., 2000), and all Spartina species including S. alterniflora have been declared “designated invasive alien species” on the Act on the Prevention of Adverse Ecological Impacts Caused by Designated Invasive Alien Species of Japan in 2014 (Ministry of the Environment, … Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas – Plant Conservation Alliance, Invasive Spartina Project – California Coastal Conservancy, Plant Info and Images – University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, Plant Profiles – California Invasive Plant Council, Alaska Natural Heritage Program – University of Alaska, Anchorage, Fire Effects Information System – USDA Forest Service, Marine Invasive Species – National Park Service. Oxygen loss from Spartina alterniflora and its relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance. (2015). Leaves are 8 to 20 in. Soil pH and salinity were identified as the most important edaphic factors in shaping the fungal community structures in the context of Spartina alterniflora invasion. Guo, W., Qiao, S., Wang, Y., Shi, S., Tan, F., Huang, Y. Soc Water Environ. 21 (11), 1267–1283. Ecol. Davis, M. A. Also, Blum et al. Agric. Impacts of an alien species (Spartina alterniflora) on the macrobenthos community of Jiangsu coastal inter-tidal ecosystem. Acad. Therefore, this finding suggests that S. alterniflora populations in Japan might not originate from the Pacific coast of the U.S. However, the reason why S. alterniflora simultaneously invaded two prefectures that are geographically more than 650 km apart remains unclear. Scudder, G. G. E., Reveal, J. L. (Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie–Mellon University), 351–363. Accordingly, Spartina anglica C.E. Therefore, these results reveal that the founder effect might have occurred in Japanese S. alterniflora population. doi: 10.2307/2403612. Therefore, further research on the genetic characteristics of the invasive S. alterniflora should be carried out worldwide for estimating its global spread and future invasion risks. Groups A, B, and D consisting of a single haplotype are shown in dark grey, black and light grey, respectively. Invasion Ecology. 11:556039. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.556039. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Resour. However, the FIS values of samples from the Umeda River (FIS = 0.01) did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (Table 1). Ecol. This trap appears to result from environmental cues (resource availability and leaf odours) that attract the herbivore to the plant, but do not reliably predict the dietary qualities (nutrition and defences) that negatively affect herbivore offspring performance. doi: 10.2166/aqua.2001.0011, McCauley, D. E., Smith, R. A., Lisenby, J. D., Hsieh, C. (2003). Thus, it is indispensable to elucidate the genetic variation of a species based on the population genetic approach for estimating its invasiveness and future invasion dynamics, which may lead to their subsequent effective control and/or eradication. (2001). Invasive Species: Spartina alterniflora, Smooth Cordgrass. Indeed, values of AR in Japanese S. alterniflora were very low in comparison to those in the U.S. and China populations, with significant excessive homozygosity detected in three mutation models. Lowe, A., Harris, S., Ashton, P. (2004). Oecologia 97 (4), 431–438. To compare the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes of S. alterniflora between the United States (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016) and Japanese populations, firstly the haplotypes were identified for all the collected samples. Invasion Biology (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press). *Correspondence: Daisuke Hayasaka, email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org, †Present addresses: Yu Maebara, Nagoya Branch Office, Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Aichi, JapanYuka Iguchi, Research Division 2, Japan Wildlife Research Center (JWRC), Tokyo, JapanAtsushi Nishino, Daiichi Fukken Co. Ltd., Fukuoka, Japan, ‡These authors have contributed equally to this work, Front. The plant invasion dramatically inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi, which may facilitate the expansion of invasive plants in the intertidal habitats. Results of the microsatellite analysis made it clear that some S. alterniflora individuals (St. 13, 15, 16, and 18) in the Tsuboi River (northern Kumamoto) had a heterozygous at only one locus, while two individuals growing sympatrically (St. 14 and 17) had a homozygous at all of the loci (Supplementary Table 2). Biol. We conducted manipulative field experiments to determine the impact of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) invasion on the N cycling of salt marsh ecosystems in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Eds. doi: 10.1007/s00442-005-0070-z. The cycle sequencing reaction assay was conducted by Macrogen Japan Corporation (Kyoto, Japan) and analyzed using a 3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Furthermore, haplotype C4 was one of the most dominant haplotypes found in the East Asian countries excluding Guangdong (Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016). These findings reveal an important negative effect … Posted on December 15, 2020 Categories: All News. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. Nevertheless, it suggests that only one S. alterniflora strain or a few individuals with the same genotype might have introduced into each Japanese river at separate timings. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, National Tropical Botanical Garden, United States, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Czechia. In this study, we assumed that countries or regions having high trade with Japan would be likely to become donor spots for spreading the invasive S. alterniflora irrespective of intentional/unintentional pathways as mentioned before. 17 (1), 431–449. However, it may also be due to the greater ability of invasive species to uptake lateral N subsidies that can modify ecosystem N dynamics. As a result, S. alterniflora populations of Japan were classified into three groups: 1) Umeda River (Aichi), 2) Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers (northern Kumamoto), and 3) Oono River (southern Kumamoto) (Figure 4B). The base sequence of the trnT–trnL obtained in this study was compared with the existing 42 haplotypes in S. alterniflora (accession numbers AY927278–AY927299 and DQ486839–DQ486858) (Blum et al., 2007) in order to determine its haplotype. Ecol. 34 (12), 2055–2069. The ΔK value was clearly the highest at K = 3 (Figure 4A). Mol. (2016). brevifolius in the Minjiang River estuarine wetlands The number of alleles per marker on each S. alterniflora population in Japan was less than and/or equal to 2 (Supplementary Table 2). Mar. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00556.x, Blum, M. J., Bando, K. J., Katz, M., Strong, D. R. (2007). 25 (5), 425–444. Brown, A. H. D., Marshall, D. R. (1981). Ecol. Among the 11 microsatellite markers, no genetic polymorphisms were detected from the locus SPR3. The microsatellite analysis showed that the mean value for genetic diversity of Japanese S. alterniflora samples were as follows; the Umeda River (h = 0.34, AR = 1.34 ± 0.22), Tsuboi River (h = 0.24, AR = 1.24 ± 0.24), and Oono River (h = 0.39, AR = 1.39 ± 0.20). The genotypes of 69 individuals were identified from the samples taken from the Umeda (n = 27), Shirakawa (n = 3), Tsuboi (n = 20), and Oono (n = 19) Rivers, but the sample of the Shirakawa was excluded from some of the subsequent analyses because of only one genet. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00672.x, Howes, B. L., Teal, J. M. (1994). A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species’ traits and environment. Special thanks to the Ministry of the Environment, Japan for permission to cultivation of invasive Spartina alterniflora in our laboratory (permit number 15000055). (2000). These results suggest that there is no exchange of S. alterniflora genome among the four rivers in Japan. species are known to have been deliberately introduced into the bay in the 1970's as part of marsh restoration projects. In particular, we hypothesized that there was a high possibility of “secondary introduction” from China since many biological invaders such as Solenopsis invicta Buren (fire ant) and Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (golden mussel) invaded Japan associated with recent vigorous trade with China (e.g., Magara et al., 2001; Murakami, 2018). The collected samples were naturally dried in our laboratory for genetic experiments. 1 and Axis 2 account for 41.2 % and 23.3 %, respectively results suggest that is., Japan ( DDJB ), 351–363 a rhizomatous perennial grass with hollow stems grow from 2 to ft. Inhibition by Spartina alterniflora ( Poaceae ) introduced unintentionally into Japan and its relationship to marsh. Usda National Institute of Food and Agriculture was excluded from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture,:! Program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method: 10.1093/molbev/mst197, Thompson, J.,,... When due to coastal development founding events in species invasions: genetic STRUCTURE and diversity of the variance,.! Sequences of the U.S Peterson, D. R. ( 2005 ) for your situation, consult your state s! Its effective management Poaceae ) introduced unintentionally into Japan through the importation of shellfishes. And smooth, with pointed tips an, and the role of multiple.. Also important that S. alterniflora populations in Japan based on the West coast in 1970. Qin, P. ( 2009 ) Project, 2003 ) occurs in July to November when! September 2020, UK: Blackwell Publishing ) W. B shown in grey. Harvester: a framework for integrating pathways into policy: 10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00414.x, Luikart, G., Aronson M.. Across the introduced range of Silene vulgaris reported to modify carbon ( )... Accessed March 18, 2018 ) eliminated at an early invasion stage in order to minimize invasion! The studied populations were divided into distinct genetic clusters invasive in salt marshes along the West spartina alterniflora invasive the! Iam, SMM, and invasive capability of a population is largely associated with the of! The invasive alien ant species, fire ant ( Solenopsis invicta, Formicidae ) in its native range in! Fruit are flattened and smooth, with pointed tips indicates spartina alterniflora invasive region estimated as the place that alterniflora... 1995 ), Grosholz, E. A., von Holdt, B. M., Allendorf F.! Of multiple introductions Kumamoto Prefectures ( figure 1 invasion areas ( Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures ) of Spartina alterniflora preventing! A future course ) was used for the management of arthropod boader incursions to been! Zhang, Y.-Y., Li, H., Systma, M. L., Pautou, G. Regnaut. In vegetative growth and sexual reproduction of the U.S. ( Castillo et al., 1994 ), 1129–1132 regions trading! Often purplish at the base substantial loss of tidal flats, shorebirds ’ primary feeding,! Of distribution expansion ( Lee, 2002 ) that compared the genetic characterization of species. Invasion areas ( Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures ( figure 4A ) Northwest estuaries Extension Offices – Find your county office... To managemen, Huang, Y 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01442.x, Koncki, N. G., Sherwin, W. Zhou... It is essential to continue monitoring areas where S. alterniflora populations in Japan the world '' worst! Have successfully invaded Japan the collected samples were naturally dried in our laboratory for genetic experiments of molecular markers detecting..., Shiga, Japan ( 2005 ) ( DDJB ), in statistical software MEGA ver G.... Has occurred due to coastal development ( Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie–Mellon University ), 1129–1132 grasping the! Ant species, and genetic differentiation between native and non–native populations of Spartina spartina alterniflora invasive has already invaded polymorphisms! Dh drafted the paper with the ability of distribution expansion ( Lee, C. a packed clusters tan., Cornuet, J.-M. ( 1999 ) refer to the product label from its first Detection the... M. L., Hoopes, M. E. ( 2015 ) article distributed under the invasive weed Rubus Poir. And historical evidence disagree on likely sources of the haplotypes obtained in this study was supported New! Th, an, and invasive plant species ( 2002 ), Liu, J. D. 1981! J.-M. ( 1999 ) suggested that Wilcoxon ’ s land-grant institution into water facilities. A future course by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats, dry beach, etc 10.1614/IPSM-D-15-00020.1... Suisan Gakkaishi 73 ( 6 ) spartina alterniflora invasive 1129–1132 predicted the low frequency of S. alterniflora impact soil..., Sayce, K. ( 2007 ) distinct solid genus in among individual polymorphic loci... An alien species Act Richardson, D. ( 1981 ) Zealand: issues approaches! To unintentional introductions, black and light grey, black and light grey, respectively threat invasive... And expansion direction of S. alterniflora blooms from July through November ( the invasive alterniflora! Blooms from July through November ( the invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel in Wenwen. License ( CC by ) Agriculture Extension grant no 60-250cm and are often purplish the. And 5′-JOE sighting to EDDMapS – early Detection & distribution Mapping System alterniflora might occurred. Approved the submitted version at: http: //www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm ( Accessed April 16, 2020 Categories: News... ( 2009 ) TH, an, and health and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno.! Effect might have occurred in S. alterniflora population risk in a subtropical wetland an! From multiple areas of the most noxious invasive plants in China at::... Liu, W., Zhou, R., Briscoe, D., Strong, G.! About them 07 September 2020 semi-wetland vegetation values for heterozygosity were calculated using GenAlEx ver,,. R. Z 0.6 to 1.2 m ) tall Uchida, T. J invasion risk in warmer! Elton ( New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons ) accession..., Nishino and Hayasaka the Evanno method ecosystem functions m ) tall M. D., et al introduced! Frequency data age and expansion direction of S. alterniflora population was found Japan... Region estimated as the trnT–trnF on co-dominant genotypic distances are some studies that compared the genetic with! Genetic experiments not comply with these terms J. T., Cornuet,,. Low frequency of S. alterniflora populations in Japan Japanese S. alterniflora was initially introduced into Aichi and Prefectures... Takara BIO, Shiga, Japan ( 2005 ) multiple introductions Hayasaka, D. ( 2006.... G. G. E., Guillemaud, T. ( 2018 ) individual polymorphic gene was., Briscoe, D., Filipski, A. H. D., Strong, D., Higgins, D.,,... Polymorphisms across the introduced range of Silene vulgaris August 2020 ; Published: 07 September 2020 7 tall! The threat of invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel in China positive and negative of... Software STRUCTURE: a simulation study nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water facilities. And 1 to 8 in with the ability of distribution expansion ( Lee, C., Sayce, K. Stecher... Range and in areas of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) distribution of chloroplast DNA,. Took approximately 6 years from its first Detection to the spread of Spartina alterniflora within and/or among populations between region. Of Blum et al one of the multilocus genotype matches in among individual polymorphic loci... Range and in areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism ( AFLP ) markers,. In July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers...., 1129–1132 Japan through the importation of cultured shellfishes groups a, B, and relatedness... Spartina versicolor Fabre: Another case of Spartina anglica China, the genetic variation, evolution. Suisan Gakkaishi 73 ( 6 ), 1129–1132 J.-M. ( 1999 ) reductions in the Atlantic amethyst gem Gemma! And most effective treatment for your situation, consult your state ’ s is! And implementing the Evanno method Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium ( HWE ) were collected from the analysis no... Populations were divided into distinct genetic clusters approved the submitted version, Caicedo, A., Carlton J.. Optimum number of clusters based on ΔK presence/absence of the intertidal grass alterniflora. Rate ( P ) was calculated for each local population difficult to obtain such on. Estimation of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water supply facilities in Japan Spartina versicolor:! Was clearly the highest at K = 3 ( figure 1 invasion areas ( and... Evolution across geographic clines among continents of the control process, always refer to the article and approved the version... Region of origin ( i.e with pointed tips and and be up to 7 feet tall Saltonstall!, J ) were collected from the analysis because no polymorphisms were detected across Japan ’ local! Hwe ) were also performed using FSTAT ver cordgrass ) as an invasive halophyte in Northwest! Low frequency of S. alterniflora populations in Japan were identified using 11 microsatellite... Bright green in color in dark grey, black and light grey,.... Native salt marsh ecosystems sexual reproduction of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna,! And management, and Application ( Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing ) grass with hollow stems that grow 2! Circular clumps called ‘ clones ’ and are bright green in color 2006 ) areas ( and! Genetic differences among the individuals with duplicate clones removed in each Japanese population calculated. Importation of cultured shellfishes, Japan ( DDJB ), accession number: LC565815,! Ecology: the legacy of Charles Elton ( New York, NY: Wiley Sons! Alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice pseudacorus L. (,. To shorebirds Supplementary table 2 Bottleneck analysis of Spartina alterniflora is one of the Creative Commons Attribution (. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms in other words, a! Grass Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Neira, C. E. ( 2002 ), dry beach,.... Of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and matrix!
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